Nanotechnology: Future scope in India

Nanotechnology: Future scope in India

Nanotechnology, the word is becoming more and more important now a day. Nanotechnology is monitoring the properties of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale. National Nanotechnology Initiative defines nanotechnology as a process to manipulate matter with at least one dimension ranges from 1 to 100 nanometers (1 nanometer=10-9 m). Nanoscience and nanotechnology are the study of extremely small things, their different characteristics at that level and huge application of them in different fields such as physics, chemistry, biology, material science, medical science, and engineering.
     “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom” – Richard Feynman’s this statement is considered as basic idea behind nanoscience and nanotechnology. Though, the term ‘Nanotechnology’ was coined far later by Prof. Norio Taniguchi. The modern nanotechnology started its journey with the development of scanning tunneling microscope.

What is Nanoscience?

The term ‘Nanoscience’ refers to gathering knowledge, manipulation, and monitoring of matter, particles, and structure on the nanoscale level. Electrical, optical, thermal and mechanical properties of nanomaterials greatly differ from their bulk material properties due to quantum mechanical effect. The assembling of nanomaterial into a larger structure is very much important for nanoscience and people need great expertise in this field.

Carbon Nanotubes

What is Nanotechnology?
Nanotechnology is the combination of technologies which are used to design, characteristics, production, and application of structure, devices and systems by controlling their shape and size at the nanoscale. So, nanoscience and nanotechnology are too much interrelated- one is knowledge part and other is the application part.

 How small is Nano?
Here nano means 10-9. In nanoscience we use nanometer as nanoscale. Nanoscience deals with 1nm to 100 nm range.
If we cut a human hair by 1 lakh parts in its width, it will be approximately 1 nanometer. Here are some examples of how small is nanometer.
                      v Human DNA is only 2.5 nm in diameter.
v Our fingernail grows about 1nm in each second.
v A single gold atom is about 1/3 nm in diameter.
v A pinhead is million nanometer wide.

Advantages of Nanotechnology:
·                         ·        It can revolutionize electronics market including quantum computer.
·        Nanotech can also influence energy sector with great involvement in fuel cells, solar cells, storage system etc.
·        It can change the concept of drug delivery system with smart drug.
·        It will massively modernize the production and manufacturing sector. 
  • ·        Inhalation of nanomaterials can cause severe harm to human.
  • ·        Atomic weapon will be more powerful and destructive with the application of nanotechnology.

Why the study of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology is important?
Nanoscience and Nanotechnology largely depend on its ability to control individual atom and molecule. The whole universe is made up of atoms. So, controlling the properties of things in nano regime, we can enhance their strength, decrease weight, influence chemical reactivity and apply them in human benefit.
It is one of the top-ranked subject related to academic and research. Though nanotechnology is considered as a branch of technology, it deals with the knowledge across all the other science fields, such as physics, chemistry,   materials science, biology etc. It has huge potential to transform our day to day life and to provide solutions to our problems in the field of agriculture, environment, energy, and medicine.
Scope of Nanotechnology?
Nanotechnology is still a growing sector. It has enormous scope in the different field in the near future and knowledge of it will help our upcoming generations. It is the third highest booming field after IT and Internet sector. The Indian government has already taken different initiatives in the area of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology to accelerate its progress. Various government funding agencies ( like the Department of Science and Technology) are inviting proposal in this field.


Carrer in Nanotechnology:

People who have experience in the field related to nanotechnology can find very good quality jobs in various fields like environment protection, nano power generating, nanotoxicology, pharmaceutical companies,  biotechnology & bioinformatics and nano-medicine. The government of India has also taken different measures to cope with the challenges of day to day problems with help of  Nanotechnology. In coming decades students can find numerous job opportunities in this sector. One can find a job as nanotechnologists; specialists or scientists. in different areas such as
               ·         Semiconductor/Electronics industry
·         Materials science including coating, polymers, packaging, among others
·         Manufacturing Industries
·         Aerospace
·          industries
Nano chip for electronics devices
·         Automobile industries
·         Biotechnology
·         Medical sector
·         Food industries
·         Environmental protection
·         Energy production and storage sector
·         Military, national security and Forensics investigations
·         Agriculture sector
·         Universities and research laboratories.

What are the job roles for Nanotechnology?

  • ·         Nanotechnologist
  • ·         Professor
  • ·         Scientist
  • ·         Engineer
  • ·         Researcher
  • ·         Medical Scientist
  • ·         Food Scientist

Nanotechnology/Nanoscience courses:
           Ø Jadavpur University, West Bengal :- M.Tech
Ø JIS College of Engineering, West Bengal:- M.Tech
Ø Shivaji University, Maharashtra:- Integrated B.Sc + M.Sc
Ø Karunya Institute of Technology and Sciences, Coimbatore:- Integrated B.Sc + M.Sc
Ø Allahabad State University: B.Sc and M.Sc
Ø Amity Institute of Nanotechnology, Noida:- M.Sc and M.Tech
Ø Jamia Mallia Islamia, New Delhi:- M.Tech
Ø Panjab University:- M.Tech
Ø Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad:- M.Sc and M.Tech
Ø IMTS, Noida:- B.Sc, B.Tech and M.Tech
Ø LPU, Punjab:- B.Sc, M.Sc and M.Tech

Along with them IIT Bombay, IISc Bangalore, IIT Delhi, NIT Calicut, IIT Kanpur, NIT   Kurukshetra etc offers various courses.

Eligibility Criteria for Nanotechnology
Some Institutes provides B.Sc in Nanotechnology, for that student should be from science stream at +2 level. Post-graduation in nano-technology or nanoscience is also a very good option. For that, students should have a bachelor’s degree with subjects like Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics and Life Sciences obtaining at least 50% marks in total. For M.Tech in Nanotechnology, candidates need a B. Tech degree in any of the mentioned fields – Material science, Mechanical, Biotechnology, Biomedical,  Chemical, Electronics and Computer Science. Candidates with M.Sc. degree in Chemistry, Physics, Biotechnology, Material Science and Computer Science, can pursue M.Tech programs for better future.  


 Image Courtesy : Wikipedia/ Wikimedia Commons


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